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It is said that the part of Istanbul within its walls was built on seven hills. The locations of these hills are:

one-The hill where Topkapı Palace, Hagia Sophia and Sultanahmet Mosque are located.

2- The hill where Çemberlitaş and Nuriosmaniye Mosque are located.

3- The hill where Beyazıt Mosque, University and Suleymaniye are located.

4- The hill where Fatih Mosque is located.

5- The hill where Yavuz Selim Mosque is located.

6- The hill where the Mihrimah Sultan Mosque is located in the Edirnekapı district.

7- The hill where Kocamustafapaşa district is located. Apart from these, the famous hills outside the city walls in Istanbul are:

Yuşa Hill in Beykoz, Şehitlik Hill in Rumelihisarı, Maden Hill in Sarıyer, Karlıtepe in Paşabahçe, Tepebaşı and Fetihtepe in Beyoğlu; Hürriyet Hill, Gayrettepe, Esentepe, Kuştepe in Şişli, Nurtepe, Şirintepe, Seyrantepe, Gültepe, Çeliktepe in Köğıthane; Fikirtepe, Göztepe in Kadıköy; Icadiye Hill, Sultantepe, Nakkaştepe, Büyük Çamlıca and Küçük Çamlıca hills in Usküdar. Terkos Lake water, Kırkçeşme Water, used as city water in Istanbul; The waters of Elmalı, Ömerli, Alibey, Darlık, Sazlıdere and İsaköy dams are drinkable. In addition, famous drinking waters of superior quality are: Hamidiye Water provided from the sources in Kağıthane and Kemerburgaz, Dertlipınar Water in Ayazağa, Kanlıkavak Water in Baltalimanı, Çırçır Water in Sarıyer, Kestane Water, Hünkör Water, Tomruk Water, Sultan Water in Büyükdere. , Kocataş Water, Kefeli Water in Kireçburnu, Kese Water in Alibeyköy are on the Rumelian side. On the Anatolian side, Taşdelen Water, Sırmakeş Water, Defneli Water, Göztepe Water, Alemdağ Water, Mütevelli Water, Çubuklu Water in Çubuklu, Karakulak Water in Beykoz, Kayışdağı Water flowing from Kadıköy fountains, Tomruk Water in Büyük Çamlıca. Küçük Çamlıca Water in Acıbadem, Ayazma Water and Şeker Water in Yakacık are high quality spring waters. There are no major rivers in Istanbul. The largest is the Riva stream. It originates from Kocaeli territory and flows into the Black Sea near Çayağzı (Riva) Village. Its length is 65 kilometers. Yeşilçay (Ağva), Çanak Creek flows into the Black Sea in Uludere, west of Şile. İstinye Stream and Büyükdere in the western part of the Bosphorus (1.5 km.), Köğıthane (12.5 km) and Alibey streams (5 km.) flowing into the Golden Horn, Sazlıdere flowing into Küçükçekmece Lake, Karasu Creek flowing into Büyükçekmece Lake, Istıranca flowing into Terkos Lake. The stream is one of the important rivers of Istanbul. Apart from these, there are also streams, many of which are places of excursion and entertainment. Kurbağalıdere (20 km) in Kadıköy, Göksu, Küçüksu (16.1 km), Elmalı, Baltalimanı (15 km), Belgrade and Sarıyer streams in the Bosphorus are small rivers. In general, Mediterranean climate conditions prevail in Istanbul. This climate differs slightly between coastal regions and inland areas. As it is known, in the Mediterranean climate, summers are hot and dry and winters are warm and rainy. The climate of Istanbul shows a special situation caused by the influence of the Black Sea on the one hand and the continental climate of the Balkans and Anatolia on the other. While the cold waves frequently coming from the Balkans continue to affect the winter, at some point the drizzly, rainy and slightly cold weather of the Black Sea begins. Once you see, the warm southwest winds of the Mediterranean effect seem to bring spring. These different situations follow each other throughout the winter. According to the observations recorded by the Kandilli Observatory, the average temperature of the year in Istanbul is 13.7 degrees, the average in January is - 5 degrees, and the average in July is 22.7 degrees. Annual rainfall is 789mm. 38% of the precipitation is in winter, 18% in spring, 13% in summer and 31% in autumn. More or less different results are obtained from the Göztepe, Sarıyer, Kartal, Şile, Florya, Yeniköy and Kumköy weather observation stations in Istanbul. The Anatolian side of Istanbul is slightly warmer than the Rumelian side. The highest temperature in Florya is 27 degrees and in Göztepe it is 31 degrees. The average annual temperature is 13.6 degrees in Florya and 13.9 degrees in Gözlepe. In our city, north winds generally blow in summer, and north winds and south winds blow in winter. Qibla and southwest winds bring rainfall. Lodos storms in Marmara, and strong winds and star winds storm the Black Sea. Since the weather in Istanbul province generally has Mediterranean climate characteristics, bare places are almost not encountered due to the hot and humid weather. Woodlands, groves, shrubs, meadows, pastures, wild herbs and flower species are seen everywhere. All kinds of vegetables and fruits grow within the borders of the province, apart from a few species such as bananas, citrus fruits, tea and cotton. Since Istanbul's terrain is rugged and humid, it is very suitable for forest growth. Since the growing forests have been cut down for centuries for the city's fuel needs, there are no forests left in the density and width required by the soil and climate. There are 251 888 hectares of forest area in Istanbul Province, 224 51 8 hectares of which are on the Anatolian side and 27 370 hectares on the Thracian side.

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